What is a Solid-State Battery? What are the Major Solid-State Battery (SSB) Companies?

Published on 26th May 2022

Batteries are increasingly playing an important role in our lives—from powering phones, laptops, watches, and cars to storing energy from renewable sources for grid support applications.


There are different types of batteries based on technology and chemistry—solid-state batteries, lead-acid batteries, lithium-ion batteries, flow batteries, and sodium-ion batteries, among others.


Battery chemistry plays an essential role in battery performance and longevity. This is why battery manufacturers worldwide invest heavily in battery technology to make batteries more efficient and resilient for a wide variety of applications.


One such innovative battery is the solid-state battery that is gaining popularity in recent times. This post discusses a solid-state battery in detail and explores the leading solid-state battery companies.


If you’re looking for a comprehensive report on the solid-state battery market, you can find the details here. Keep reading to learn more about solid-state batteries.


Table of Contents

  • History and Background of Solid-State Batteries
  • What is a Solid-State Battery?
  • How Does a Solid-State Battery Work?
  • Solid-State Batteries vs. Lithium-Ion Batteries
  • Solid-State Battery Advantages
  • Solid-State Battery Disadvantages
  • Applications of Solid-State Batteries
  • What are the Major Solid-State Battery Companies?
  • Blackridge Research & Consulting – Global Solid-State Battery Market Report
  • What Does the Future Look Like for Solid-State Batteries?
  • Conclusion


History and Background of Solid-State Batteries

There is significant interest in solid-state battery technology. However, the history of solid-state batteries goes back to the 1830s when Michael Faraday, an English physicist and chemist, discovered the solid electrolytes—silver sulfide and lead (II) fluoride. This discovery established the foundation for solid-state ionics.


The development of a high-temperature Na-S battery in the 1960s by the Ford Motor Company and the ZEBRA (Zeolite Battery Research Africa Project) battery in the 1980s at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in Pretoria, South Africa, heralded the arrival of solid-state electrolyte batteries.


The discovery of lithium salt-poly (ethylene oxide) complexes-based solid polymer electrolytes in the 1970s led to true all-solid-state batteries. Subsequently, the discovery of lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory led to the development of thin-film solid-state batteries with excellent cycling stabilities at ambient temperatures.


Globally, solid-state battery R&D continues with battery technology improvements and integrated efforts.    


What is a Solid-State Battery?

A solid-state battery is a battery that uses a solid electrolyte and solid electrodes. Unlike a conventional lithium-ion battery (Li-ion battery) or a lithium polymer battery that uses a liquid electrolyte or polymer gel electrolyte for ion movement, a solid-state battery contains a solid electrolyte.


Instead of suspending solid metal electrodes in a liquid electrolyte, a solid-state battery compresses the anode, cathode, and electrolyte into three flat layers—this unique arrangement makes the battery flatter and smaller while retaining as much energy as a larger liquid-based battery.


As the solid electrolyte acts as a separator and a carrier of electrons, solid-state batteries fare well in parameters such as energy density and are resistant to thermal runaway, unlike traditional lithium-ion batteries with liquid electrolytes.


How Does a Solid-State Battery Work?

The working mechanism of a solid-state battery is similar to that of a lithium-ion battery except for the electrolyte. While electrically conductive materials make up the anode and cathode, the lithium ions move through the electrolyte between the two electrodes. The movement of charged ion particles in a particular direction during charging (cathode-to-anode movement) and discharging (anode-to-cathode) produces current.


Solid-State Batteries vs. Lithium-Ion Batteries

Lithium-ion batteries are widely used to power several devices—from consumer electronics like cellphones and laptops to vehicles like automobiles and bicycles. The main drawbacks of lithium-ion batteries are:

  • Explosion or fire risk (if damaged or improperly charged)
  • Heavy liquid electrolytes
  • Unstable performance in extreme temperatures


As a liquid electrolyte-based lithium-ion battery is susceptible to fire risk, battery companies engaged in active research to find a viable alternative to mitigate the thermal runaway risk without sacrificing performance.


The solid-state battery technology has the potential to overcome the shortcomings of the traditional lithium-ion battery.


While a lithium-ion battery uses a liquid electrolyte to manage the energy flow between the anode and cathode, a solid-state battery uses a solid-state electrolyte for ionic conductivity. Solid electrolytes make solid-state batteries lighter with more energy density and travel range.


In addition, solid-state batteries are found to be more stable for usage across devices, including medical devices like pacemakers and wearable devices.


Solid-State Battery Advantages

The main advantages of solid-state batteries include:


Form factor

Unlike lithium-ion batteries that contain heavy liquid electrolytes, solid-state batteries use glass, ceramic, or other solid material as the electrolyte—making the battery more compact with better range and less prone to fire risk.


As the solid-state cell comprises solid layers instead of a mixture of solid and liquid components, the size of the cell is smaller and lighter for the same capacity when compared to its lithium-ion counterpart.


Low-temperature and high-temperature performance

Solid-state batteries have shown stable performance at low/high temperatures with better battery life. Latest research shows that a solid-state battery could charge up in a tenth of the time and outperform by 500% or more in terms of capacity when compared to a conventional rechargeable battery.


Non-toxic and non-flammable

The safety of solid-state batteries is based primarily on the absence of toxic and flammable liquid electrolytes that could cause dangerous battery fires. Therefore, a solid-state battery is a safer option with a non-flammable battery material.


Solid-State Battery Disadvantages

The main disadvantages of solid-state batteries include:


Higher production cost

As the production cost of solid-state batteries is relatively higher, solid-state battery manufacturing is yet to catch up in mass production.


Interface resistance

Another significant disadvantage, especially of all-solid-state batteries (ASSBs), is high resistance at the electrode/solid electrolyte interface that hinders fast charging and discharging.


Fast degradation

The accumulation of lithium dendrites is considered an inherent chemical flaw that causes solid-state batteries to degrade rapidly after a number of charge-discharge cycles. Ongoing research efforts are focusing on developing a solid-state battery that charges and discharges many times without much degradation.


Applications of Solid-State Batteries

Solid-state batteries are useful for a variety of applications, including electric vehicles like an electric car, medical devices like defibrillators and pacemakers, gardening tools and equipment like a lawnmower, industrial processes, energy storage applications, and various gadgets used in aerospace and satellites.


Light weight, low flammability, higher electrochemical energy density and stability are some of the driving factors behind the increasing appeal of solid-state batteries for varied applications.


What are the Major Solid-State Battery Companies?

We have seen how solid-state batteries are used in multiple applications. Let us now look at major solid-state battery companies (listed in alphabetical order):


Blue Solutions

For over 30 years, Blue Solutions (a subsidiary of the Bolloré Group) has been committed to in-depth R&D of solid-state Lithium-Metal-Polymer (LMP®) battery technology. Blue Solutions’ pioneering LMP® technology design is based on two reversible electrodes (including one lithium metal) physically separated by a solid polymer.


The primary benefits of solid-state batteries include:

  • Heightened security (tolerance to extreme external temperatures)
  • High energy density and stability
  • A long lifespan
  • Recyclability


Blue Solutions is significantly contributing to the 100% solid-state battery revolution that aims to improve the packaging ergonomics, increase the energy density, and reduce the operating temperature of the solid-state battery.


Factorial Energy

Factorial Energy is a solid-state battery specialist that focuses on developing next-generation battery technology in its advanced R&D facility. In collaboration with global auto original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), battery manufacturers, and strategic material suppliers, Factorial Energy is transforming solid-state battery technology.


Furthermore, the company’s customer-driven research process has resulted in the world’s first commercial-scale, balanced performance-profile solid-state cell.


ProLogium Technology Co., Ltd.

ProLogium Technology (PLG) specializes in cost-effective, high-performing, and safe battery technologies for consumer, EV, and industrial applications. PLG’s product portfolio consists of a flexible lithium ceramic battery (FLCB), pouch lithium ceramic battery (PLCB), and multi-axis bipolar+ (MAB) battery pack.


Gogoro—the leading company in battery swapping ecosystems—jointly developed the world’s first solid-state lithium ceramic battery with ProLogium Technology.


The new solid-state battery prototype for two-wheel battery swapping delivers higher energy density, better stability and safety, and is reverse compatible with existing Gogoro-powered vehicles.



QuantumScape is a renewable energy company that developed the industry’s first anode-less cell design with key benefits like high energy density and lower material costs.  


The company’s patented non-flammable solid ceramic electrolyte separator prevents anode-cathode touching and moves lithium ions safely from one side of the battery to the other during charge and discharge.


QuantumScape’s breakthrough solid-state technology powers zero-emission transportation with fast-charging, long-lasting, and safer batteries.


Solid Power

Solid Power is a leading company in all-solid-state battery (ASSB) technology. The company specializes in providing ASSB technology to its partners and selling sulfide-based solid electrolytes that offer the best combination of cell-level performance, conductivity, and manufacturability.


Compared to liquid-based lithium-ion technology, Solid Power’s all-solid-state battery cell technology is built for cost-effective, longer-lasting, and risk-free battery performance with high-content silicon anode, sulfide solid electrolyte, and an NMC (Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide) cathode.


Toyota Motor Corporation

Toyota Motor Corporation is a well-known automobile company performing in global markets and creating ever-better cars driven by extensive innovation.


With over 1,000 solid-state battery patents, the car maker is leading solid-state battery production to develop a game-changing battery that can ensure a trip of 700 km on one charge and a recharge from zero to full in about 10–15 minutes with minimal safety concerns.


Moreover, the joint venture of Toyota Motor Corporation (Toyota) and Panasonic Corporation (Panasonic)—Prime Planet Energy & Solutions, Inc.—will develop, manufacture, and sell next-generation automotive batteries, including high-capacity, high-output automotive prismatic lithium-ion batteries and automotive solid-state batteries.


Other notable players in the solid-state battery market include Ionic Materials, SES (formerly known as SolidEnergy Systems), and Hydro-Québec’s Center of Excellence in Transportation Electrification and Energy Storage.


Blackridge Research & Consulting – Global Solid-State Battery Market Report

As the world gradually moves away from fossil fuels toward alternative sources of energy, the global battery market is experiencing an uptick in demand and growth.


Among battery technologies, solid-state batteries promise to be a safer and more sustainable alternative to traditional batteries such as lithium-ion batteries.


Do you want to know the solid-state battery industry’s profitability and state of competition in detail?


Blackridge Research & Consulting’s global solid-state battery market report provides comprehensive insights into current and future market opportunities, competitive landscape, critical commercial developments, solid-state battery industry’s supply chain, government policies and regulations, and much more.


Moreover, the report provides a rigorous analysis of market trends and the market share of key players. Whether you want to save on your first purchase or multiple purchases, get in touch to know more about the introductory offer and instant savings. Blackridge Research & Consulting also provides custom research services and free report customization.


In addition, all report purchases come with up to 60 minutes of exclusive analyst access and post-purchase analyst support up to a year.


What Does the Future Look Like for Solid-State Batteries?

For several years, battery technology has been focusing on improving charging times, battery capacity, and battery safety. As mass-produced solid-state batteries can be potentially cheaper than other batteries, battery companies are optimizing solid-state technology for cost-effective and highly scalable manufacturing.


Active R&D across the globe is developing the next-generation solid-state batteries to meet future energy storage and mobility applications, among other battery needs.


Does solid-state battery technology have strong potential for adoption in the future? Absolutely.

Once the technology maturity and manufacturing challenges of solid-state batteries have been addressed, battery manufacturers anticipate extensive adoption in EVs and consumer electronics applications—more than the energy storage industry.


Interestingly, production is ramping up with Blue Solutions providing all-solid-state batteries to the electricity storage and transportation sectors.


In a broader context, other leading battery manufacturers like Samsung SDI (Samsung Digital Interface) and LG Energy Solution (a battery-making subsidiary of LG Chem) are working on improving the operational efficiency of solid-state batteries.


For example, researchers at LG Energy Solution collaborated with nanoengineers at the University of California San Diego to create a high-performance all-solid-state battery with a pure silicon anode that can withstand faster charge rates at the room to low temperatures.


Undoubtedly, solid-state batteries will have to compete on cost with mainstream lithium-ion batteries and scale up to meet market demand before being adopted for commercial use.


Automobile OEMs, battery producers, and specialized start-ups are teaming up and boosting funding in solid-state battery R&D and manufacturing to address the bottlenecks.


Many automakers have set mid-decade to the second half of the decade as goals for the deployment of solid-state batteries. However, this technology is not expected to be widely adopted until 2030.



Battery technology is evolving like never before. Rapid advancements in battery chemistry are paving the way for improved safety, fast charging, high power-to-weight ratio, long battery life, and better shelf life (due to reduced self-discharge).


Solid-state batteries are all set on the path of mass production and commercialization in the competitive battery market. With several contenders in the battery industry, solid-state batteries are carving a niche of their own with improved range, reliability, and relatively higher safety.


As Steve Jobs famously said, “Innovation is the ability to see change as an opportunity—not a threat.” Solid-state batteries represent the change in battery innovation and are well positioned to lead us toward a safe and sustainable future.   


You may be interested in:

The Future Roadmap for Sodium-Ion Batteries

Do You Know the Top 5 Lead-Acid Battery Manufacturers?

Here’s the Top 10 List of Flow Battery Companies

What is a Lithium-ion Battery? What are the Types of Lithium-ion Batteries?

Global Lithium-Ion Battery Market Report

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